What's eating your landscape?

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What’s Eating at You? 

Better Yet - What’s Eating at Your Landscape?

Do you ever go through spells where something is bugging you and you just can’t seem to shake it? 

Well, that is exactly how a lot of landscape plants are feeing right now!

Before we jump into the bugs, let’s talk about the most important gift you can give your plants…

ATTENTION!
Healthy landscapes are a result of an Integrated Pest Management program. The first step of an IPM approach is maintaining healthy plant material with proper watering, feeding, and pruning. Insect activity increases on plant material that is already stressed. The second step is simply monitoring your plants. Weekly observation is critically important. Does the overall plant color look healthy? How do the leaves look?

Complete control is much easier when insects are noticed early and populations are small.

Here are a few of the things that may be eating at your landscape this week:   

Bagworms

  • ½-2” long spindle shaped bag wrapped in the foliage of the host plant.  Young bagworms are very hard to spot.

  • Favorite host plants are juniper, arborvitae, spruce, pine and cedar.  But, they can attach themselves to deciduous shrubs and trees. 

  • Females lay eggs in bags left on plants over the winter.  One female bagworm will lay as many as 500 eggs. The eggs hatch in the late spring and tiny larva crawl out and start feeding.  As they feed, they use silk and plant materials to protect and camouflage themselves.  Bagworms can strip a plant of foliage.   They are active from May through September.

  • Heavy infestations, particularly on the same plant year after year, can cause plant death.

  • When there are only a few, control is best done by hand picking.  If you have a large population an insecticide treatment should be made as soon as they are noticed.  Try to remove any bags left on plant material in the fall.  Bags left on the plant will serve as cocoons for females to lay more eggs. When removing bags, destroy them.  Do not pick and toss on the ground as the worm will crawl back to a plant.

 
Young bagworms are small and can be hard to see. They wrap themselves in the plant needles making them hard to notice.

Young bagworms are small and can be hard to see. They wrap themselves in the plant needles making them hard to notice.

If you notice a juniper or cedar starting to loose color, inspect for bagworms.

If you notice a juniper or cedar starting to loose color, inspect for bagworms.

Left untreated, large, heavy infestations of bagworms will kill mature trees and shrubs.

Left untreated, large, heavy infestations of bagworms will kill mature trees and shrubs.

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Aphids

  • A small, soft-bodied insect that is nearly invisible to the naked eye.  The honeydew, sticky substance they excrete is the easiest way to know aphids are active.  Colonies develop on the underside of the leaf and often are not noticed until the sticky substance starts to show.

  • They feed on the leaves, stems and buds of a wide variety of plants throughout the growing season.  Usually they attack the succulent new growth.

  • Aphids generally do not cause serious harm to mature plants, although they can be harmful to young plants.  Heavy populations can cause wilt and yellowing of leaves as the sap is removed.  Blooming trees and shrubs will see a reduction in flowers.  Aphids can promote sooty mold, a fungal disease, and spread viruses. 

  • Early detection is the key.  Aphids mature in 7-10 days and can produce 40-60 offspring resulting in population explosions in the thousands within a few weeks. 

  • When populations are small, a high-pressure blast of water can be used to wash the insects off the leaves.   Wiping the leaves with a soapy solution is also effective with early detection.  In most cases, once you notice the honeydew, it is best to treat with an insecticide.  A dormant oil application in the winter is helpful in reducing populations the following season.  Lady bugs can be used as a beneficial insect control when populations are small.

 
Aphids feed on the underside of the leaf and become noticeable as the leaf becomes covered with the sticky substance they excrete.

Aphids feed on the underside of the leaf and become noticeable as the leaf becomes covered with the sticky substance they excrete.

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Spider Mites

  • Very small (1/60 of an inch) that live on the underside of leaves and survive by sucking on the cell content of the leaves.  First shows up as stippling of light dots on the leaves.  Leaves then turn from bronze, to yellow, and then fall off. 

  • They get their name from the small silk protective webs they create. 

  • Because spider mite damage can look like many other plant problems, the best way to determine if it is spider mites is to shake the plant leaves over a white sheet of paper.  Spider mites will look like tiny moving black dots on the paper. 

  • They are active from early summer through fall, but the hotter and dryer the weather, the more severe the spider mite problem will become. 

  • Spider mites reproduce rapidly when conditions are perfect.  Spider mites can hatch in as little as 3 days and become mature within 5 days.  One female can lay up to 20 eggs per day during their 2-4 week life span.

  • The best control results from making two applications 7-10 days apart.

  • Adequate plant moisture during the hottest time of the year helps prevent population explosions.

 
Early signs of spider mites.

Early signs of spider mites.

Silk protective webbing formed by the spider mite.

Silk protective webbing formed by the spider mite.

To know if you have spider mites shake leaves over a white sheet of paper.    Spider mites will look like tiny moving black dots.

To know if you have spider mites shake leaves over a white sheet of paper.

Spider mites will look like tiny moving black dots.

 

Webworm

  • Caterpillars that weave a loose web around tree branches while they are munching on the leaves. 

  • Favorite trees include hickory, mulberry, oak, pecan, popular, redbud, sweetgum, and willow.  But, you can find them on most ornamental shade trees when populations are heavy.

  • There are typically two generations each season, but there can be as many as four.  First generation shows up in July and the last generation is in September or October.

  • Early generations won’t cause long lasting damage.  They are just unsightly.  The last generation can cause damage when the branch tries to re-bud just before a killing frost.  When this occurs, you can expect the affected branch to die.

  • The best control is to cut out any affected branches in the early generations when the webbing is small.  Completely dispose of the branch as the worms will exit the webbing and return to a tree.  If the population has increased to the point that pruning is not possible, an insecticide application will be needed.  The spray must penetrate the webbing to gain control of the caterpillars.  Dormant oil applications are a good idea as worms overwinter in tree bark.

 
The webworm caterpillar weaves a loose web around tree branches to protect themselves while they are destroying your tree’s leaves.

The webworm caterpillar weaves a loose web around tree branches to protect themselves while they are destroying your tree’s leaves.

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Inspect your plant material often.  Our landscapes represent large investments in both time and money. They add curb appeal and provide enormous benefits to the environment.  It is important that we do all we can to keep them healthy and growing.

Let us know if we can help you have any questions or concerns about your plant materials.

Lorne Hall

Hall | Stewart Lawn + Landscape

(405)367-3873

Summertime = water time!

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The forecast is beginning to look like a typical July – temps in the 90’s, lots of sunshine, and only slight chances of scattered showers.     

All the abundant moisture this year is fading quickly from the soils.  In the last 10 days the soil moisture content has gone from 1.0 (saturated) to .2 (dry).  Other than a few scattered showers, it has now been two weeks since we received a 1” of rainfall.  


Good watering practices need to be your number one focus in the landscape for the next few weeks.

Good watering practices will have the biggest influence in the health and appearance of your landscape the rest of the summer.

Best Watering Practices…

Apply 1” to 1.5” of water per week.  

Your lawn and landscape need 1” to 1.5” of moisture per week when temperatures are consistently 85 degrees or higher. 

A common question is “How long should I water?”  Every irrigation system is different – different head types, different size nozzles, different head spacing, different areas, etc.  

The best way to know how long you should water is to measure the amount of water your system puts out in each zone. Take a few cans and place them around your lawn in a random pattern. Run your sprinklers through a cycle and measure the amount of water in the cans. If the sprinklers ran for 15 minutes and you had .25” of water, you need 60 to 90 minutes per week.

Next determine how long you can run your irrigation before you there is excessive runoff. This will tell you how many times per week you need to water. If you can get away with watering every 4th day, you will have a healthier, stronger landscape. Unfortunately, with our tight soils, watering every other day on the required ODD/EVEN system during the hottest times is needed to get the correct amount of water on the lawn without excessive runoff.

If you don’t have the time to audit the amount of water your system puts out, start with these settings, monitor, and adjust: Fixed spray pattern heads with 10-15’ spacings – 15 mins per time. Larger rotor type heads on 10-30’ spacings – 40 mins per time.

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Set your controller to water with back to back run times. 

For most of our landscapes, if we run our sprinklers long enough to get the recommended amount of water, we end up with a lot of water running down the street.  Split your zone run time in half and set your controller to run through the zones back to back. 

Example:  Set the controller to run at 4:00 AM and 4:30 AM.  When the 4:00 cycle completes, even if it past 4:30, the controller will start the second cycle. 

I know from experience that moist soil will absorb more water than dry soil.  Soil is just like the sponge in your sink. A dried sponge repels water before it starts absorbing water.  Your landscape is the same.  The first cycle moistens the soil and the second cycle soaks in. 

Split, back to back, irrigation cycles are an old golf course trick.  In fact, large commercial irrigation controllers have a run/soak cycle setting that waters a short time, delays, and then waters a longer time.

I started this a few years ago on lawns with slopes and gradually have incorporated the concept to all lawns.  It makes a difference in watering efficiency.

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Water in the early morning. 

Evaporation is at the lowest point in the pre-dawn hours.  Also, wind is usually at the lowest point of the day in the pre-dawn hours.  I prefer to set most irrigation controllers to start at 4:00 AM with the goal of having the cycle completed by 8:00 AM. 

Avoid watering in the heat of the day when much of the water will be lost to evaporation.  Also, avoid watering in the evening. Watering in the evening promotes many turf diseases because the lawn stays wet too long.

This is critical for fescue lawns.  If fescue stays wet for more than 6 hours at a time and temperatures are in the upper 80’s or higher, brown patch is unavoidable.  Fescue performs best in the heat if it is watered deeply and grass blades are dry by noon. 

Earlier this week I reset a system on a fescue lawn that had brown patch starting in several areas.  The system was set to run at 4:00 AM, noon, and 9:00 PM every day.  They were creating the perfect breeding and spreading conditions for their lawn’s worst enemy.

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Daily watering is not needed.  

Unless you are trying to get newly planted seed to germinate or new sod to take root, there is not a good reason to water every day.  Always water deep and infrequent.  Daily, shallow watering creates a landscape that is shallow rooted and more dependent on constant moisture for survival. 

Fescue will benefit from a deep soaking, every other day, during the summer months just like Bermuda. Shallow, daily watering in the summer heat is very damaging to fescue. Remember - Brown patch symptoms look very similar to draught stress. Typically, the more you water, the worse the fescue looks, so you add more water, and the cycle of decline continues.

A common myth I would love to dispel is that fescue requires a lot more water than bermuda.  Yes, it does for a couple of weeks in the fall when you are trying to get newly seeded fescue to germinate, but mature fescue doesn’t require more moisture than bermuda

I water my fescue the same way I water bermuda – deep, infrequent cycles.

Aeration improves moisture absorption. 

You can’t beat aeration for improving your soil structure. A key benefit of improved soil structure is better water absorption.  Lawns that receive annual aeration (or at least every other year) do not experience as much runoff. 

Always pay attention to water need. 

If we receive .5” of rain or more, turn your controller off for a few days.  Install a rain sensor if you are not good at remembering.  A rain sensor will pay for itself easily in one season.  Just because it is summer, don’t assume you can leave your controller in automatic and forget it. 

Don’t stress if your lawn and landscape gets a little dry, it will rebound quickly once water is applied.  Remember, just as we have experienced this spring and early summer, too much water is more damaging than not enough. 

A good indicator that your lawn is needing water is the foot print test.  If the grass retains your foot prints instead of quickly springing back, it is time to resume watering.

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Watch for uneven water patterns. 

If you notice areas where the lawn color is fading, you may have uneven moisture patterns.  This could be the result of a broken head, clogged nozzle, or a head that is out of adjustment.  

Even if you don’t have an irrigation system, the concepts of good watering apply.  

It is important to learn how long you need to water when you are using a hose end sprinkler.  Next time you water, set out a few cans.  You will be surprised how long you need to water to get the proper amount of water on your lawn.  Invest in a digital hose water timer, such as the ones made by Orbit.  It will make it easier for you to control the timing and frequency of watering. 
 

If you need help in determining your lawn and landscape’s water needs, let us know. 

We can schedule an irrigation audit for your lawn and landscape.  We will inspect for even water distribution, measure water rates, adjust heads, make recommended irrigation changes, and set the controller for optimal operation. 

Give us a call if we can help – (405)367-3873. 

A healthy landscape is an important part of our environment.  A healthy turf helps clean the air, trap carbon dioxide, reduce erosion, improve groundwater quality, absorb noise, reduces temperatures, as well as, adds cub appeal and value to your home.  A key component to a healthy landscape is proper water usage. 

Lorne Hall

Hall | Stewart Lawn + Landscape

Crape Myrtle - Summer's Biggest Show!

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This week marked the longest day of the year, the first day of summer, and the start of Crape Myrtle season. 

Most blooming trees and shrubs last for only a few days or a couple of weeks.  But the crape myrtle holds the distinction of being our longest blooming shrub or tree.  Typically, the crape myrtle starts adding color to the landscape in mid-June and doesn’t stop until the first frost.  This year, due to the cooler than normal start to the summer, the crape myrtle hasn’t started to put on their summer show yet but will in the next couple of weeks.   

This past week, I was fortunate to spend a few days in Charleston, South Carolina, the first place the French planted crape myrtles in the United States.  One of our favorite activities of the week was a morning walk through Charleston’s crape myrtle lined streets. 

There are over 50 varieties of crape myrtles and new ones are introduced every year.  They are found throughout the southern US and perform well anywhere south of USDA zone 6. 

Crape myrtle Sizes    Standard Crape Myrtles  - When allowed to grow as a small tree will reach up to 25’ in our region and require little maintenance. Simply remove any dead wood from the tips of the branches in the spring and let the plant go for the season. They can be grown as a single trunk or a multitrunked tree.   Semi-dwarf Crape Myrtles  - Typically grow 8-12’ tall and make an excellent colorful screen when grown in a row.   Dwarf Crape Myrtles  - Grow only 2-4’ tall, are small and mounding, and ideal for a landscape bed where you want a splash of summer color.  Selecting the right sized plant is important. Crape myrtles are at their best when they can grow to their natural shape and size. Constant pruning on the wrong size plant to keep it in a space it was not meant to fit will reduce the summer blooms.

Crape myrtle Sizes

Standard Crape Myrtles - When allowed to grow as a small tree will reach up to 25’ in our region and require little maintenance. Simply remove any dead wood from the tips of the branches in the spring and let the plant go for the season. They can be grown as a single trunk or a multitrunked tree.

Semi-dwarf Crape Myrtles - Typically grow 8-12’ tall and make an excellent colorful screen when grown in a row.

Dwarf Crape Myrtles - Grow only 2-4’ tall, are small and mounding, and ideal for a landscape bed where you want a splash of summer color.

Selecting the right sized plant is important. Crape myrtles are at their best when they can grow to their natural shape and size. Constant pruning on the wrong size plant to keep it in a space it was not meant to fit will reduce the summer blooms.

Crape Myrtle Colors – The color pallet ranges from white, pink, purple and red.  Bloom color is not the only attribute of a crape myrtle.  Their foliage ranges from dark green, wine colored, velvet and dark purple. The combination of the bloom and foliage colors is one of the things that attracts me to the plant.

I am most fond of the large, full sized, tree formed crapemyrtles.  It is hard to narrow my list of favorite crapemyrtles, and my list often changes, but these are just a few of my current favorites:

Pink Velour  – Large 12-15’ small tree form with dark wine foliage and bright pink flowers. The foliage and flower combination are very striking.

Pink Velour – Large 12-15’ small tree form with dark wine foliage and bright pink flowers. The foliage and flower combination are very striking.

Dynamite  – Also a small tree that grows up to 15’. Dynamite was one of the first red tree form varieties. New foliage is nearly crimson in color and changes to a rich green as it matures. Flowers are brilliant red.

Dynamite – Also a small tree that grows up to 15’. Dynamite was one of the first red tree form varieties. New foliage is nearly crimson in color and changes to a rich green as it matures. Flowers are brilliant red.

Natchez  – One of the largest tree form crape myrtles reaching 25’. Foliage is rich green, and flowers are white. The cinnamon brown bark puts on a show of its own as it exfoliates.

Natchez – One of the largest tree form crape myrtles reaching 25’. Foliage is rich green, and flowers are white. The cinnamon brown bark puts on a show of its own as it exfoliates.

Ebony Flame  – A great accent plant that grows 10-12’ with dark red blooms on intense black foliage.

Ebony Flame – A great accent plant that grows 10-12’ with dark red blooms on intense black foliage.

One of the nation’s leading innovators of crape myrtles is Oklahoma’s own, Dr. Carl Whitcomb. Dr. Whitcomb holds 32 patents and has authored five books including Know It and Grow It, a book every landscape enthusiast should own. You can see all of Dr. Whitcomb’s crape myrtles by following this link: http://drcarlwhitcomb.com/Patented_Plants.html

Crape Myrtle Bark  – One of the most overlooked aspects of the plant is the bark. The bark is smooth and ranges in color from pink to gray. As the plant matures, the thin bark exfoliates to expose a different color underneath. Too often, tree form crape myrtles are severely pruned every spring and we never get to enjoy the beautiful bark of the mature plant.

Crape Myrtle Bark – One of the most overlooked aspects of the plant is the bark. The bark is smooth and ranges in color from pink to gray. As the plant matures, the thin bark exfoliates to expose a different color underneath. Too often, tree form crape myrtles are severely pruned every spring and we never get to enjoy the beautiful bark of the mature plant.

Crape Myrtle Fall Color  – Another overlooked characteristic of the plant is the fall color. Varieties range from yellow to red. Much of our fall color is found in larger trees. Crape myrtles add fall color to the landscape below the color of the large trees.

Crape Myrtle Fall Color – Another overlooked characteristic of the plant is the fall color. Varieties range from yellow to red. Much of our fall color is found in larger trees. Crape myrtles add fall color to the landscape below the color of the large trees.

I would challenge anyone to find another plant that offers so many features to the landscape.  From the long bloom, the variety of colors, the many shapes and sizes, and the addition of exfoliating bark and good fall color, you can’t deny the crape myrtle a place in your landscape.

Lorne Hall

Hall Stewart Lawn + Landscape

More perennials, please!

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We keep a tentative schedule for our weekly topics.  Today’s topic was to be “Watering Tips for the Summer.”  But that would be a very short, probably one sentence tip: “Turn the water off!” 

Our goal every week is to address issues we are seeing in lawns and landscapes as we are out providing lawn care services.  Most problems we are seeing are related to too much moisture and poor drainage.  The Oklahoma City area received, on the average, another 2” of rain this week.  Soil moisture readings are at 100%.  This means soils can not absorb any additional water and if you add any it will just run off.  By mid-week if we have not received any more rainfall, inspect your landscape and water only if needed.

So, let’s talk about something more interesting than “turn your water off” - let’s talk about perennials!

Traditionally a big believer in lots of annual color, I have been gradually reducing the amount of annual color in my landscape by adding perennials.   

My landscape has always included some perennials.  But, because they don’t bloom all season and often their foliage is unattractive after the blooms have faded, my style has been to keep them in the background.

I still believe that annual color provides the most season long impact.  Areas close to the front doors, along the front walks, and key areas around our outdoor living spaces still look best planted with pansies and bulbs in the fall, and replanted with various heat loving annuals in April and May.  You can’t beat the impact of bright annual color! 

But I’m glad I have been gradually adding more perennials to the landscape because this year perennials have been stunning. 

There are so many perennial choices. There are more perennials than you could ever cover in one writing.  Books and books have been devoted to perennials, but I have a few favorites.  Each of these have found a home in my landscape, although none of them last the entire season, as a group, they add interest from spring to fall. 

Creeping Phlox (Phlox stolonifera) .  The first to welcome spring each year.  Creeping phlox produces a spring-like carpet in pastel hues of white, lavender, red and pink.  Creeping phlox is a moderate grower that can spread up to 2’ but only reaches 4-6” in height.  It prefers full sun but will tolerate some shade each day.  Borders, walls, and around boulders are where it looks best.  In my garden, you will find it cascading over a rock retaining wall. It tolerates most soils as long as it is well drained.  The plant requires little maintenance.  Mites are about the only insect problem it will have.  

Creeping Phlox (Phlox stolonifera).  The first to welcome spring each year.  Creeping phlox produces a spring-like carpet in pastel hues of white, lavender, red and pink.  Creeping phlox is a moderate grower that can spread up to 2’ but only reaches 4-6” in height.  It prefers full sun but will tolerate some shade each day.  Borders, walls, and around boulders are where it looks best.  In my garden, you will find it cascading over a rock retaining wall. It tolerates most soils as long as it is well drained.  The plant requires little maintenance.  Mites are about the only insect problem it will have.  

Dianthus (Dianthus).    It works well as a border, in small groupings, around boulders or as a single plant reaching 10-15” tall with a spread of 12-24”.  They bloom in late spring to early summer in rose, pink, white, red.  They like full sun but will take some dappled shade or afternoon shade.  Just like creeping phlox, they are a cool season lover.  They will grow in most soils, prefer alkaline soils, but waterlogged soil will cause crown and root rot.   Heavy mulching near the crown of the plant can be detrimental. Late March through April and into May is the peak bloom time. Light feeding in the spring with a complete fertilizer of phosphorus, potassium and low nitrogen is recommended.  Other than an occasional aphid or powdery mildew issue, they do not have many problems.  There are more than 300 varieties of dianthus to choose from.  My all-time favorite is ‘Firewitch’.  It has a silver-green foliage and with a vibrant pink bloom.

Dianthus (Dianthus).   It works well as a border, in small groupings, around boulders or as a single plant reaching 10-15” tall with a spread of 12-24”.  They bloom in late spring to early summer in rose, pink, white, red.  They like full sun but will take some dappled shade or afternoon shade.  Just like creeping phlox, they are a cool season lover.  They will grow in most soils, prefer alkaline soils, but waterlogged soil will cause crown and root rot.   Heavy mulching near the crown of the plant can be detrimental. Late March through April and into May is the peak bloom time. Light feeding in the spring with a complete fertilizer of phosphorus, potassium and low nitrogen is recommended.  Other than an occasional aphid or powdery mildew issue, they do not have many problems.  There are more than 300 varieties of dianthus to choose from.  My all-time favorite is ‘Firewitch’.  It has a silver-green foliage and with a vibrant pink bloom.

‘May Night’ Salvia (Salvia x sylvestris).   Sage type flower spikes of deep bluish-purple that will add color in April, May and early June. The best flower show will be in full sun but it will tolerate a little dappled shade each day.  The plant grows 12-18” tall with flower spikes reach 24”.  The plant looks great in the middle of the garden planted behind creeping phlox or dianthus, and in front of Shasta daisy or Black-eyed Susan.  The leaves often become tattered later in the summer. Keep faded blooms removed to maximize bloom period and pruning the plants after blooming may result in a few fall blooms. In the early spring, before new growth emerges, remove the dormant foliage.  Salvia tolerates clay soils but will struggle with root rot if the soil stays saturated.

‘May Night’ Salvia (Salvia x sylvestris).  Sage type flower spikes of deep bluish-purple that will add color in April, May and early June. The best flower show will be in full sun but it will tolerate a little dappled shade each day.  The plant grows 12-18” tall with flower spikes reach 24”.  The plant looks great in the middle of the garden planted behind creeping phlox or dianthus, and in front of Shasta daisy or Black-eyed Susan.  The leaves often become tattered later in the summer. Keep faded blooms removed to maximize bloom period and pruning the plants after blooming may result in a few fall blooms. In the early spring, before new growth emerges, remove the dormant foliage.  Salvia tolerates clay soils but will struggle with root rot if the soil stays saturated.

Cutting Salvia back after it has finished blooming for the season.

Cutting Salvia back after it has finished blooming for the season.

Daylily (Hemerocallis) .  With hundreds of cultivars there are too many colors to list.  Daylilies range from 10-36” tall and 12-24” wide.  Depending on the variety, blooms start in early summer and extend into late summer with a successive blooming habit that last 4-6 weeks.  Plant in sun to partial shade with no more than a half day of shade.  They are drought tolerant, pest resistant – an overall tough plant. With a clump type growth, they are dynamic planted in a mass grouping. Well drained fertile soil is best, but they are very adaptive to a wide range of soils.  Leave dormant foliage until new foliage emerges in the spring.  Fertilizer in early spring and again in early summer.  Clumps can be divided every 3-5 years in the fall.  Remove spent flower stocks to encourage more blooms.  The most common yellow daylily is ‘Stella de’ Oro’.  ‘Pardon Me’ is a great red daylily.  Planting daylilies behind liriope (monkey grass) will help cover up the unattractive foliage as it begins to fade in late summer.  Our daylilies started putting on their early summer show this week

Daylily (Hemerocallis).  With hundreds of cultivars there are too many colors to list.  Daylilies range from 10-36” tall and 12-24” wide.  Depending on the variety, blooms start in early summer and extend into late summer with a successive blooming habit that last 4-6 weeks.  Plant in sun to partial shade with no more than a half day of shade.  They are drought tolerant, pest resistant – an overall tough plant. With a clump type growth, they are dynamic planted in a mass grouping. Well drained fertile soil is best, but they are very adaptive to a wide range of soils.  Leave dormant foliage until new foliage emerges in the spring.  Fertilizer in early spring and again in early summer.  Clumps can be divided every 3-5 years in the fall.  Remove spent flower stocks to encourage more blooms.  The most common yellow daylily is ‘Stella de’ Oro’.  ‘Pardon Me’ is a great red daylily.  Planting daylilies behind liriope (monkey grass) will help cover up the unattractive foliage as it begins to fade in late summer.  Our daylilies started putting on their early summer show this week

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum x superbum).   Classic daisy appearance of white petals around a yellow center.  They grow in clumps 1-2’ wide and 2-3’ tall.  Best if planted in fertile soil that drains well.  The more sun they receive the more they will bloom.  Shasta Daisies start blooming in early summer and can last until early fall.  They make great cut flowers.  We are enjoying an arrangement of white daisies and hydrangea blossoms from the garden this weekend.  Keeping the faded blooms cut will extend the color show.  After the foliage goes dormant in late fall, cut the stems back to 1-2”.  They respond well to light fertilizer in the spring.  Daisies perform best if they are divided every 3-5 years.  Considered as a low maintenance plant, aphids are about the only insect you may see.  ‘Becky’ is a favorite variety.

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum x superbum).  Classic daisy appearance of white petals around a yellow center.  They grow in clumps 1-2’ wide and 2-3’ tall.  Best if planted in fertile soil that drains well.  The more sun they receive the more they will bloom.  Shasta Daisies start blooming in early summer and can last until early fall.  They make great cut flowers.  We are enjoying an arrangement of white daisies and hydrangea blossoms from the garden this weekend.  Keeping the faded blooms cut will extend the color show.  After the foliage goes dormant in late fall, cut the stems back to 1-2”.  They respond well to light fertilizer in the spring.  Daisies perform best if they are divided every 3-5 years.  Considered as a low maintenance plant, aphids are about the only insect you may see.  ‘Becky’ is a favorite variety.

Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia grandiflora).   Daisy like golden-yellow flower petals surround a dark brown or black center reaching 2-4’ and spreading 2’.   The large flower blooms (2-4”) will be arriving in the next two weeks and will continue into July.   And, if you keep spent blooms trimmed off, you will get a few blooms in the fall. Plant in sun to partial shade.  As a native prairie plant, you will find it to be low maintenance.  It tolerates most soils but prefers well drained. 

Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia grandiflora).  Daisy like golden-yellow flower petals surround a dark brown or black center reaching 2-4’ and spreading 2’.   The large flower blooms (2-4”) will be arriving in the next two weeks and will continue into July.   And, if you keep spent blooms trimmed off, you will get a few blooms in the fall. Plant in sun to partial shade.  As a native prairie plant, you will find it to be low maintenance.  It tolerates most soils but prefers well drained. 

Because of its height, plant in the middle of a bed or as a background to lower perennials, such as dianthus or salvia. The plant can be divided every 3-5 years.  Remove dormant foliage anytime in the fall or winter.  It can develop powdery mildew if in too much shade.  Minimal feeding is required.  Keep a watch out for occasional aphid problem. 

Because of its height, plant in the middle of a bed or as a background to lower perennials, such as dianthus or salvia. The plant can be divided every 3-5 years.  Remove dormant foliage anytime in the fall or winter.  It can develop powdery mildew if in too much shade.  Minimal feeding is required.  Keep a watch out for occasional aphid problem. 

Coneflower (Echinacea).   A native   prairie plant with purple or white blooms 2-4” in diameter.    Just like Black-Eyed Susan it reaches 2-4’ in height and spreads out 2-3’ and makes a good show planted in the back or sides of the garden.  But, it also works well as a single specimen.  Plant in sun to partial shade.  It is one of the longest summer bloomers with a show that last 5-8 weeks. The coarse texture of the leaves makes them well suited near softer-textured plants such as ornamental grasses.  It enjoys well-drained, fertile soil.  Removing faded flowers will encourage more blooms.  Remove dead foliage in the winter.  Coneflower is fairly disease tolerant and responds to feeding early in the growing season, and also likes to be mulched.

Coneflower (Echinacea).  A native prairie plant with purple or white blooms 2-4” in diameter.    Just like Black-Eyed Susan it reaches 2-4’ in height and spreads out 2-3’ and makes a good show planted in the back or sides of the garden.  But, it also works well as a single specimen.  Plant in sun to partial shade.  It is one of the longest summer bloomers with a show that last 5-8 weeks. The coarse texture of the leaves makes them well suited near softer-textured plants such as ornamental grasses.  It enjoys well-drained, fertile soil.  Removing faded flowers will encourage more blooms.  Remove dead foliage in the winter.  Coneflower is fairly disease tolerant and responds to feeding early in the growing season, and also likes to be mulched.

Hardy Verbena (Verbena).   This low growing (4-6”) spreading (2-3’) perennial thrives in summer heat while producing purple, pink, red or white blooms.  Verbena is not picky about soil type, but requires full sun.  When it gets more than 2-3 hours of shade per day, its biggest problem is powdery mildew disease increases.  The low growing nature makes it perfect for the front of beds, along walks and cascading over walls and slopes.  It also looks great in pots and window boxes.  Good drainage and fertile soils needed and with consistent irrigation blooms and spread will increase. Feed in spring and after first flush of heavy blooms.  Don’t fertilize after July.  Verbena likes mulch to insulate roots and hold in moisture.  Sheering the plant just below spent blooms will encourage growth and more flowering.  My favorite variety is ‘Homestead Purple’. 

Hardy Verbena (Verbena).  This low growing (4-6”) spreading (2-3’) perennial thrives in summer heat while producing purple, pink, red or white blooms.  Verbena is not picky about soil type, but requires full sun.  When it gets more than 2-3 hours of shade per day, its biggest problem is powdery mildew disease increases.  The low growing nature makes it perfect for the front of beds, along walks and cascading over walls and slopes.  It also looks great in pots and window boxes.  Good drainage and fertile soils needed and with consistent irrigation blooms and spread will increase. Feed in spring and after first flush of heavy blooms.  Don’t fertilize after July.  Verbena likes mulch to insulate roots and hold in moisture.  Sheering the plant just below spent blooms will encourage growth and more flowering.  My favorite variety is ‘Homestead Purple’. 

Garden Mum (Chrysanthemum x moratorium).   Typically thought of as an annual, but they make a great perennial for fall color with shades of pink, red, white and yellow.  Plant height and width are both 1-3’ resulting typically in a round shape.  They produce a wonderful burst of color for 2-4 weeks in late September and October.  Mums will tolerate light shade but prefer full sun.  To survive the winter as a perennial they need moisture and good drainage. Therefore, add an ample amount of compost when planting in our clay soils.  Dormant foliage can be removed anytime during the winter or in the spring when new growth emerges.  Mums will bloom a little in the spring or early summer.  Once the early blooms fade, keep the plant sheared to the shape and height you prefer.  Stop shearing after the first of July.  When you shear a mum during the last half of the summer, you are removing the flower buds for the fall.

Garden Mum (Chrysanthemum x moratorium).  Typically thought of as an annual, but they make a great perennial for fall color with shades of pink, red, white and yellow.  Plant height and width are both 1-3’ resulting typically in a round shape.  They produce a wonderful burst of color for 2-4 weeks in late September and October.  Mums will tolerate light shade but prefer full sun.  To survive the winter as a perennial they need moisture and good drainage. Therefore, add an ample amount of compost when planting in our clay soils.  Dormant foliage can be removed anytime during the winter or in the spring when new growth emerges.  Mums will bloom a little in the spring or early summer.  Once the early blooms fade, keep the plant sheared to the shape and height you prefer.  Stop shearing after the first of July.  When you shear a mum during the last half of the summer, you are removing the flower buds for the fall.

These are some of my favorites -- but, with so many types of perennials, I am always finding another one to try in the landscape. 

What are your favorites? 

One final thought – I have noticed a trend toward mixing herbs in perennial garden. Not only will herbs add different textures and tones to the landscape, but you also get the benefit of having fresh herbs, which are always better, on your dinner table.

Send us an email or give us a call (405)367-3873, we would love to hear what is working for you!

Lorne Hall

Hall | Stewart Lawn + Landscape

When rain is no longer helpful...

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Our goal is to keep you informed of lawn and landscape issues we are experiencing each week as we visit sites in the Oklahoma City area.  I’m sure it is no surprise to you that we are starting to see plant problems related to the excessive amount of rainfall we are receiving.

Normal annual rainfall for the Oklahoma City area is 36.5”.  In the past 365 days, the metro area has received nearly 54”.  In the last 30 days, 12.5” has fallen with 6” in the last week.

It is common for us to be discussing watering tips as we head into the summer.  I have only one watering tip today – turn your irrigation system off!  Early this morning I witnessed 3 irrigation systems running in my neighborhood alone.  Established plant materials – lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers – are showing signs of over watering stress.

Roots are the foundation to a healthy plant.  They are the primary source of water, nutrients, and oxygen.  Yes, oxygen.  Plants breath through their root system.  Plants, just like humans, can drown when water replaces air. 

So, why is it common for so many to water more when a plant is struggling because of too much water?  Plants respond in very similar ways to draught and too much water.  The first symptom of too much water is yellowing leaves followed by wilting.  The wilting leaves, whether it is too much or too little water, look nearly the same.  When you see wilting leaves, you must stop and think about the conditions and check the soil.

For example:  A couple of weeks ago I planted a tropical hibiscus in a patio pot.  This week I noticed it was wilting, grabbed a pitcher full of water and headed out the door to water it, all the while wondering why it would be dry.  What I discovered was a plant sitting in water because of clogged drain holes.  Either way, the hibiscus was wilting.  The same is true about your lawn, your flowers, your shrubs and your trees.  It is just a lot easier to diagnose when it’s in a container.

Here are a few problems we noticed this week:

Photinia Leaf Spot – A fungal disease that is common on photinia even in dryer periods but is rampant in cool periods with a lot of rainfall. It is hard to control and requires repeated applications of a fungicide in the spring and the fall. Once a plant develops the disease, it typically returns each season. Photinia are best planted in full sun areas with good air circulation. Many seasons in Oklahoma we can get away with planting them in partial shade and tight areas, but then you have a May like this year, and you remember why the experts said not to plant it where you did. Or, it could just be that your landscape has matured and now it finds itself in a less than ideal spot.

Photinia Leaf Spot – A fungal disease that is common on photinia even in dryer periods but is rampant in cool periods with a lot of rainfall. It is hard to control and requires repeated applications of a fungicide in the spring and the fall. Once a plant develops the disease, it typically returns each season. Photinia are best planted in full sun areas with good air circulation. Many seasons in Oklahoma we can get away with planting them in partial shade and tight areas, but then you have a May like this year, and you remember why the experts said not to plant it where you did. Or, it could just be that your landscape has matured and now it finds itself in a less than ideal spot.

Yew – A plant that is notorious for quickly yellowing and dying in wet or waterlogged soil.  They can be temperamental, but given the right conditions with moist, but well drained soil, they do well.  They won’t tolerate waterlogged soils and this spring many are finding they are in just too wet of soil.  As with many shrubs, the first signs of yellowing suggest too much water.

Annual Color – It is always best to wait until May to plant seasonal color varieties that thrive in the summer heat. May is the month when soil temperatures are warm enough for them to establish roots for the summer. But, the best annuals for surviving the summer heat don’t like saturated soils. We are seeing periwinkle (annual vinca) with yellowing leaves. Penta, known for its tough nature in a draught, struggling to get established because of root rot. Lantana, maybe the best in hot, sunny, draught prone locations, struggling in wet soils.

Annual Color – It is always best to wait until May to plant seasonal color varieties that thrive in the summer heat. May is the month when soil temperatures are warm enough for them to establish roots for the summer. But, the best annuals for surviving the summer heat don’t like saturated soils. We are seeing periwinkle (annual vinca) with yellowing leaves. Penta, known for its tough nature in a draught, struggling to get established because of root rot. Lantana, maybe the best in hot, sunny, draught prone locations, struggling in wet soils.

Xeriscape – Selecting more draught tolerant plants has become more and more popular. Overall, I think it is a good idea - in the right location. But, yucca and many other xeriscape favorites, are having a rough start to the year. These plant selections don’t need particularly great soil, but they do need to have good drainage and be soil that stays on the dryer side.

Xeriscape – Selecting more draught tolerant plants has become more and more popular. Overall, I think it is a good idea - in the right location. But, yucca and many other xeriscape favorites, are having a rough start to the year. These plant selections don’t need particularly great soil, but they do need to have good drainage and be soil that stays on the dryer side.

Bermuda Lawns – Large patch is a fungal disease that is a problem in cool, wet spring weather. This has been a perfect season for it to develop with the excess rainfall and temps that have lagged. It starts as a small area with leaf blades that appear light in color with some orange-bronze spots, and it gradually spreads to larger patches. We have noticed it more in poor drainage areas and in tight soil conditions. The best solution is for temperatures to consistently stay in the 70’s at night. After the lawn has improved in June, aerating would help with soil structure and drainage.

Bermuda Lawns – Large patch is a fungal disease that is a problem in cool, wet spring weather. This has been a perfect season for it to develop with the excess rainfall and temps that have lagged. It starts as a small area with leaf blades that appear light in color with some orange-bronze spots, and it gradually spreads to larger patches. We have noticed it more in poor drainage areas and in tight soil conditions. The best solution is for temperatures to consistently stay in the 70’s at night. After the lawn has improved in June, aerating would help with soil structure and drainage.

Fescue Brown Patch – This is fescue’s biggest problem. It is closely related to large patch, but only it causes problems on cool season turf instead of warm season. Also, the disease starts when it is hot and wet, instead of cool and wet. When nighttime temperatures are consistently in the 70’s and the fescue leaves stay wet more than 8 hours per day, brown patch grows. It is almost a given that your fescue will struggle if you have poor soil drainage, low air movement because of structures or landscape plantings, dense shade, heavy morning dew several days in a row, over watering or too much rain, or if you water in the evening. If you have a fescue lawn, the best thing that could happen until we dry out is for temps to remain mild – the exact opposite of what we need for bermuda. Don’t help the disease out by watering – leave the irrigation off. Mow your lawn around 3-3.5”. Too short and too tall will promote the problem. When it is time to start watering again, water in the early morning only, and not every day. Leaf blades must have time to dry completely. Aeration every fall on fescue lawns will improve soil drainage.

Fescue Brown Patch – This is fescue’s biggest problem. It is closely related to large patch, but only it causes problems on cool season turf instead of warm season. Also, the disease starts when it is hot and wet, instead of cool and wet. When nighttime temperatures are consistently in the 70’s and the fescue leaves stay wet more than 8 hours per day, brown patch grows. It is almost a given that your fescue will struggle if you have poor soil drainage, low air movement because of structures or landscape plantings, dense shade, heavy morning dew several days in a row, over watering or too much rain, or if you water in the evening. If you have a fescue lawn, the best thing that could happen until we dry out is for temps to remain mild – the exact opposite of what we need for bermuda. Don’t help the disease out by watering – leave the irrigation off. Mow your lawn around 3-3.5”. Too short and too tall will promote the problem. When it is time to start watering again, water in the early morning only, and not every day. Leaf blades must have time to dry completely. Aeration every fall on fescue lawns will improve soil drainage.

Much of what we discussed today are climate issues we can’t control.  But, the excessive rainfall has reminded me why a few things are very important:

1.     Water based only on need.  Too much water damages plant roots.

2.     Always plant a little above grade so that excess water will move away from the plant.     

3.     Select the right plants for the right location.  This is more than just sun or shade.  It includes soil type and water requirements.

Remember – the most common problem of plant stress is unhealthy roots.  This applies to lawns, flowers, trees and shrubs.

Lorne Hall

Hall | Stewart Lawn + Landscape

(405)367-3873

Introducing... the world's worst weed!

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If I asked you what weed gives you most difficulty, most would respond without hesitation: NUTSEDGE! 

Wikipedia claims nutsedge is the “the world’s worst weed!”  It is a problem in over 90 countries.  No other weed comes even close. 

Nutsedge is fast growing, has an upright growth habit and light green in color. Because it grows nearly twice as fast as your turf and is lighter, it ruins the best maintained lawns within a couple days of mowing.    

Nutsedge starts growing as soil temperatures warm up in May, and because it thrives in moist, tight soils, nutsedge is showing up with a vengeance in Oklahoma lawns this year.   

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What does nutsedge look like?

Commonly called nutgrass but is a sedge with a triangular leaf blade. It grows upright and is light green in color. 

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What are the best growing conditions for nutsedge?

Nutsedge thrives in moist, tight soils.  It is common to find it growing in areas of poor drainage, around irrigation leaks, and in lawns that are watered too frequent.  Once nutsedge is established, it thrives with normal irrigation and periods of drought.  Nutsedge prefers full sun and doesn’t grow well in shade.

Why is nutsedge so difficult to control?   Nutsedge is a perennial weed. Perennial weeds are always more difficult to control. But, nutsedge is one of the toughest because it spreads by underground tubers. The tubers grow 6-12” deep and are referred to as nuts - thus the common name of nutgrass. Nutsedge spreads by growing rhizomes which produces more nuts. Weeds that propagate through tubers and rhizomes are very difficult to control because unless you get control of the rhizome and tuber, the plant will sprout new growth within a few days. Also, tubers can remain dormant in soil for three seasons.

Why is nutsedge so difficult to control?

Nutsedge is a perennial weed. Perennial weeds are always more difficult to control. But, nutsedge is one of the toughest because it spreads by underground tubers. The tubers grow 6-12” deep and are referred to as nuts - thus the common name of nutgrass. Nutsedge spreads by growing rhizomes which produces more nuts. Weeds that propagate through tubers and rhizomes are very difficult to control because unless you get control of the rhizome and tuber, the plant will sprout new growth within a few days. Also, tubers can remain dormant in soil for three seasons.

What is the best way to control nutsedge?

Be proactive.  With the first sign of nutsedge, take action. Nutsedge is much harder to control once it has been allowed to spread and mature.  Weed killers labeled for use on nutsedge will be either a contact killer or a systemic.  A contact herbicide will kill only the leaves and the tubers and rhizomes will remain active if you make only a single application. Systemic products will translocate through the plant to the tubers and rhizomes. 

Remember, single applications of most herbicides labeled for nutsedge will kill the plant leaves but leave the nut ineffective.

Is pulling nutsedge a good idea?   Pulling nutsedge is only recommended when the plant is very small before nuts start to develop on the rhizomes. Once nuts start to develop, you must remove the nut when pulling the weed, which is typically 6-12” below the surface. If you pull the weed and leave the nut behind, new plants will emerge very quickly.  Research suggest that anytime the tuber is stressed, by either pulling the top off or by killing the top without killing the tuber itself (the result of a single application of an herbicide), the tuber multiples. Therefore, many people experience more nutsedge after they have pulled or sprayed.  Cultivating nutgrass, such as in landscape beds, is ineffective. All you are doing is redistributing the tubers and rhizomes.

Is pulling nutsedge a good idea?

Pulling nutsedge is only recommended when the plant is very small before nuts start to develop on the rhizomes. Once nuts start to develop, you must remove the nut when pulling the weed, which is typically 6-12” below the surface. If you pull the weed and leave the nut behind, new plants will emerge very quickly.

Research suggest that anytime the tuber is stressed, by either pulling the top off or by killing the top without killing the tuber itself (the result of a single application of an herbicide), the tuber multiples. Therefore, many people experience more nutsedge after they have pulled or sprayed.

Cultivating nutgrass, such as in landscape beds, is ineffective. All you are doing is redistributing the tubers and rhizomes.

What else can I do to be proactive in preventing nutsedge?

Aeration is a great way to reduce the chances of nutsedge starting and spreading.  Aeration reduces soil compaction and reduces the best growing conditions for nutsedge.  Our experience is that lawns which are aerated annually rarely have significant nutsedge problems. 

Water only based on need and infrequently.  Overwatering, keeping your lawn too wet, promotes the best growing conditions for nutsedge.

Correct water leaks in your sprinkler system promptly.  Nutsedge will stake a claim to any areas that become waterlogged.  

Along the same line of thinking, correct poor drainage areas.  Often patches of nutsedge is an indicator of poor drainage. 

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If you find yourself struggling with nutsedge, give Hall|Stewart a call, (405) 367-3873.  Our 7-Step Lawn Care Program includes nutsedge control.  One of the benefits of subscribing to our full program is we do not charge extra for nutsedge control.  Because we know the presence of nutsedge can quickly tarnish a great looking lawn, we use the most advanced nutsedge control herbicides available to the industry.

Lorne Hall

May Lawn & Landscape Tips

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In all the years I’ve been in the lawn and landscape industry I don’t believe I have experienced two identical springs.  Everything we do is based on air and soil temperatures, as well as soil moisture. So, we make are spring service plans and schedule services all based on the average spring weather.    

But, does average ever happen when it comes to weather? 

This spring has been almost perfect when it comes to a good gradual warm up without the usual extreme temperature swings. We didn’t experience the typical above normal temperatures followed by a late freeze.  The result was an April with some of the best spring color I can remember.   All the spring blooming trees, shrubs and flowers put on a show! 

With one exception, this has been a perfect spring.  Both air and soil temperatures have lagged behind.  This has been a slow-to-get-here spring resulting in slow turf development.  Fescue was slower than normal to regain full color.  I mowed my fescue lawn less in March than I can ever remember.  Finally, fescue color and development came around in April.  Even warm season turf has also lagged a couple of weeks behind in green up and development. 

Now with the arrival of May and the abundant moisture we are receiving, your lawn and landscape is positioned to take off for the summer.   

Here are a few tips for May:

Pre-Emergent Application – Between late April and the end of May, it is critical you receive your second pre-emergent application of the year.  A pre-emergent creates a barrier over the soil that prevents weeds from germinating.  Routine activity, such as mowing and play, as well as heavy rains, all break down the barrier we created with our first application of the year.  Application #3 is a key step in strengthening the barrier and giving you season long control.  The effectiveness of all pre-emergent herbicides is increased when the product is watered into the top ½’-1” of the soil Please make sure you do your best to follow the watering instructions we leave when making your application.

Post-Emergent Application – Weeds that are not prevented, both grasses and broadleaf, require additional treatment to control.  Now that the warm season turf is coming completely out of dormancy, control of weeds can be stepped up.  Application #3 contains broadleaf weed control mixed with the pre-emergent for additional control.  Grassy weed control will continue on an as needed basis in a safe manner to limit turf damage. 

Nutsedge  often begins to show up in lawns in late May.  The pre-emergent herbicide we use will help with prevention, but it isn’t 100% and some spot treatments can be expected.  But, since Nutsedge is a result of tight, wet soils, annual aeration is the best practice.    

Nutsedge often begins to show up in lawns in late May.  The pre-emergent herbicide we use will help with prevention, but it isn’t 100% and some spot treatments can be expected.  But, since Nutsedge is a result of tight, wet soils, annual aeration is the best practice.    

Turf Fertilizer – Bermuda lawns need a good feeding as they start into their prime growing season.  For fescue lawns May is the last month to strengthen fescue before going into the most stressful time of the year for a cool season turf.  After May, excessive nitrogen can harm fescue and often results in disease issues. 

Anytime we make an application of weed control or fertilizer, please let us know if you have any concerns 10-14 days after our visit. If the turf isn’t greening up properly, or if weeds are not wilting, we want to know. If you are new to our program, we know it will take time to get your lawn to the healthy condition you desire. But we expect to make progress with each visit. We know this may require additional visits and if you are on our full 7- Step Program, we will make the needed extra visits.

Anytime we make an application of weed control or fertilizer, please let us know if you have any concerns 10-14 days after our visit. If the turf isn’t greening up properly, or if weeds are not wilting, we want to know. If you are new to our program, we know it will take time to get your lawn to the healthy condition you desire. But we expect to make progress with each visit. We know this may require additional visits and if you are on our full 7- Step Program, we will make the needed extra visits.

Tree & Shrub Care –  May is the month to watch for bagworms on needle evergreens. We subscribe to an integrated pest management approach.  With our Tree & Shrub Program, we inspect for bagworms and treat as needed.  Bagworms are very easy to control when they are small.  But, they are very hard to see when they first start to develop.  If you notice bagworms, or have a concern about your plants, please let us know

Tree & Shrub Care – May is the month to watch for bagworms on needle evergreens. We subscribe to an integrated pest management approach.  With our Tree & Shrub Program, we inspect for bagworms and treat as needed.  Bagworms are very easy to control when they are small.  But, they are very hard to see when they first start to develop.  If you notice bagworms, or have a concern about your plants, please let us know

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Lawn Maintenance – Both warm and cool season turf grasses need frequent mowing now.  One of the most important things for good turf health is to avoid removing more than 1/3 of the grass in one mowing.  Not only does it not yield you the best looking lawn when you cut below the leaf and into the stem of the grass, it also weakens the root system.  Try to maintain your Bermuda on the middle setting or just below the middle setting in May.  For fescue, raise the setting one notch this month and cut around 2.5”.  At the end of the month it is best to have fescue at a maximum height going into the summer. 

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Seasonal Color – Now time to install your summer annual color.  Most landscapes look best with a splash of bright color creating a welcoming environment near the front door.  Impatiens and Caladiums are great choices for full shade areas.  Begonias, petunias, and geraniums do well in sun to part shade.  Periwinkle, lantana, and penta are good at handling the heat and full sun.

Irrigation  – The average rainfall in the Oklahoma City area in the last 7 days is over 2 ½”.  All the Mesonet sites in the area are all reporting ample soil moisture.  Please conserve water and leave your irrigation off or put it on a rain delay for the next 5-7 days.  If you have subscribed to our Irrigation Management program with the Rainbird Wi-Fi Link, we have been delaying your irrigation the last few weeks based on rainfall and soil moisture measurements.   During May your lawn and landscape needs 1 -1 ½” of moisture per week as temperatures start reaching into the 90s. Remember to always water based on need.  

Irrigation – The average rainfall in the Oklahoma City area in the last 7 days is over 2 ½”.  All the Mesonet sites in the area are all reporting ample soil moisture.  Please conserve water and leave your irrigation off or put it on a rain delay for the next 5-7 days.  If you have subscribed to our Irrigation Management program with the Rainbird Wi-Fi Link, we have been delaying your irrigation the last few weeks based on rainfall and soil moisture measurements.   During May your lawn and landscape needs 1 -1 ½” of moisture per week as temperatures start reaching into the 90s. Remember to always water based on need.  

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Azalea Care  – Wow!  What a show they put on this year.  After Azalea’s bloom it is time to fertilize and prune.  Prune between bloom drop and the end of June.  Pruning after mid-summer will result in less blooms next year.  Azaleas look best when minimally pruned and allowed to retain their natural shape.  Prune by removing longer shoots by reaching down and making cuts where they come off a larger branch.  This will improve air moment and promote healthy growth.  Avoid shearing azaleas. Fertilize now with a controlled release azalea food.  Now is also the best time to add a fresh layer of mulch.  As temperatures rise the mulch will keep the soil cooler and retain moisture.  The best mulch for azaleas is pecan hulls or pine bark.  

Azalea Care – Wow!  What a show they put on this year.  After Azalea’s bloom it is time to fertilize and prune.  Prune between bloom drop and the end of June.  Pruning after mid-summer will result in less blooms next year.  Azaleas look best when minimally pruned and allowed to retain their natural shape.  Prune by removing longer shoots by reaching down and making cuts where they come off a larger branch.  This will improve air moment and promote healthy growth.  Avoid shearing azaleas. Fertilize now with a controlled release azalea food.  Now is also the best time to add a fresh layer of mulch.  As temperatures rise the mulch will keep the soil cooler and retain moisture.  The best mulch for azaleas is pecan hulls or pine bark.  

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If you have any questions, please drop us an email or give us a call at (405)367-3873.

Our mission is to make sure you have a lawn and landscape that improves the appearance, enjoyment and value of your surroundings.

Lorne Hall

The Epic Summer Battle: Outdoor Fun vs The Mosquitoes. Coming Soon to Your Backyard!

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We want your days to be full of outdoor enjoyment and safety this year.

The key to more outdoor time is winning the battle with the all so annoying, potential Zika, and West Nile Virus carrying mosquito. 

Hall | Stewart believes in an integrated pest management (IPM) approach to mosquito control.  Success is the result of focusing on prevention and reduction.

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What you can do to win the battle  

Mosquito control is everyone’s responsibility when it comes to removing and eliminating larval breeding sites.  Standing water is a desirable breeding ground for mosquitoes.  Mosquitoes spend 3 of their 4 stages of life dependent on standing water.  This makes anywhere water accumulates from bird baths, flower pots, toys, poor draining gutters, a perfect playground for the insect.    

Mosquito eggs won’t hatch without water.  The newly hatched larva live in water and develop into pupae all before they emerge as an adult. Simply reducing standing water around your residence will have a significant impact on mosquito population. Even pet bowls can be a breeding ground for mosquitoes.  Any object containing 5-7 day old water during the summer and fall is a potential playground for the pest.  Drain and refill pet bowls and bird baths every 5 days at the minimum. 

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Adult females are the only mosquitoes that bite. They typically attack in the evening, but occasionally are out during the day. Most afternoons you will find them resting in shrubs, trees and other shady areas. After they obtain blood meal from a person or animal they lay their eggs in water or a place where it will get wet. They prefer dark colored containers and shaded areas for egg laying.

The entire life cycle of the mosquito takes only 4-5 weeks.

What Hall | Stewart can do to help you win the battle

Barrier treatments are the most effective and proven method for managing the pest.  A barrier can be made by treating all vegetation, shrubs and trees, from the ground up to a height of 10 feet.

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Insecticides must be applied to both the top and bottom of plant leaves which is difficult to achieve with a traditional pump-up, handheld spray can.

Power backpack misters are the ideal equipment for barrier treatments as they force droplets into the vegetation and underneath leaves.  Other common resting sites, such as under decks, gutters, and other moist shady areas are included in the treatment areas. 

Hall | Stewart uses the Syngenta mosquito management program Secure Choice Assurance.  The program uses two control methods:

·       Demand CS is used to provide an initial quick kill and residual control of adult mosquitoes.

·       Archer, a growth regulator, adversely affects the reproductive cycle of the mosquitoes by preventing larval development resulting in fewer adult mosquitoes.  

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Due to the short life cycle of mosquitoes, regularly scheduled monthly barrier treatments will provide significant reduction in the number of insects.

The battle is a team effort. You can win by reducing the breeding grounds for mosquitoes and by subscribing to the Hall | Stewart Mosquito Control Program.

We want you to have peace of mind when it comes to outdoor enjoyment this summer.    

If you have not already subscribed to our mosquito control program, call or respond to this email. 

Now is the time to start!

Lorne Hall

Hall | Stewart Lawn + Landscape

(405)367-3873